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    Case Histories of an Electromagnetic Method for Petroleum Exploration

    Publisher – Zonge, 1983.

    Authors – Larry J. Hughes, Zonge Engineering & Research Organization, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A.

    Report –
    CSEM Geophysics: Case Histories of an Electromagnetic Method for Petroleum Exploration

    Part I: Table of Contents, Summary and Conclusions pdficon_large

    Part II: Data Interpretation, Chapters 1 and 2 (with acquisition description) IP-Petro_2;

    Part III: Case Histories, Chapter 3 IP-Petro_3;
    Part III: Case Histories, Chapter 4 IP-Petro_4;
    Part III: Case Histories, Chapter 5 IP-Petro_5
    Part III: Case Histories, Chapter 6 IP-Petro_6;
    Part III: Case Histories, Chapter 7 IP-Petro_7;

    Part IV: Additional Information, Chapter 8 – Mechanisms of Current Flow in the Earth, and Chapter 9, Principles of Electromagnetic Theory as Applied to Petroleum Exploration IP-Petro_8;

    Part IV: Additional Information, Chapter 10 – A Short History of Electrical Techniques in Petroleum Exploration IP-Petro_9;

    “Case Histories of an Electromagnetic Method for Petroleum Exploration” is the culmination of five years of field measurements, theoretical studies, and research into the utility of multi-frequency electrical measurements in hydrocarbon detection. This volume discusses in detail the current level of understanding by Zonge Engineering of how these types of data are interpreted, why anomalies are observed over hydrocarbon accumulations, which mechanisms cause the anomalies, and the importance of this information in drilling for oil and gas.

    The work is divided into four parts: Part I presents two summaries, the Executive Summary, which provides a general overview of the project, and the Summary and Conclusions, which offers a more detailed synopsis of the individual case histories and the results of other work over the past five years.

    Part II covers most of the topics needed to understand the case histories which follow. This includes a review of how the data are acquired, processed, and analyzed for trends indicative of alteration over hydrocarbon traps. A brief discussion of anomaly mechanisms is offered, as well as an analysis of spurious effects due to metal pipelines, well casings, topography, and subsurface geology.

    Part III presents the case histories, which are accompanied by geologic information and

    detailed data interpretations. The case histories involve 81 line-miles (130 line-km) of electrical data obtained over oil and gas fields in the Rocky Mountain and midwest regions of the United States.

    Part IV includes supplementary information which would be of interest to readers requiring additional information on electrical methods. The material includes both a physical and a theoretical description of how electrical current flows through the earth and how we can make sense of all the data we obtain in the field work. The final chapter provides a historical review of electrical measurements as applied to petroleum exploration, as well as some possibilities for future research.

    The general approach in this volume is to bring together many ideas and observations which may be valid in electrical exploration, to clear up several misconceptions, and to present electrical data in a way which (hopefully) will help direct further effort in productive directions. However, the real advances of the science lie beyond the presentation of more electrical data. Only through dedicated research of anomaly mechanisms and through a sustained program of geophysical discoveries can the true potential of electrical techniques be fully realized as a valuable supplement to ongoing seismic and geologic exploration programs.